The first blog : The first blog http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1.htm Your first blog Wed, 24 May 2017 07:51:08 GMT 10 The first blog : The first blog http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1.htm What Are The Leading Causes Of Heel Spur The first blog 2015-09-28T11:47:02Z <img class='alignright' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://erikdalton.com/images/heelspurcirc.jpg' width='251' alt='Heel Spur'/><br /><br><br><b>Overview</b><br /><br><br>There are approximately 75 different causes of heel pain. At least 80% of all heel pain is due to heel spurs. A heel spur contains calcium, but cannot truly be called a calcium deposit. Bone spurs, whether they are on the heel or on any other bone of the body, are true bone -- they are true enlargements of the bone and may be sharp and pointed, or round and knobby. Since bone spurs are true bone, they contain calcium just like regular bones, but are not pure calcium deposits.<br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>Over-pronation (flat feet) is a common cause of heel spurs, but people with unusually high arches (pes cavus) can also develop heel spurs. Women have a significantly higher incidence of heel spurs due to the types of footwear often worn on a regular basis.<br /><br><br><img class='alignleft' style='float:right;margin-right:10px;' src='http://www.drpribut.com/sports/heelspur.gif' width='254' alt='Posterior Calcaneal Spur'/><br /><br><br><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>An individual with the lower legs turning inward, a condition called genu valgus or "knock knees," can have a tendency toward excessive pronation. This can lead to a fallen arch and problems with the plantar fascia and heel spurs. Women tend to suffer from this condition more than men. Heel spurs can also result from an abnormally high arch. Other factors leading to heel spurs include a sudden increase in daily activities, an increase in weight, or a thinner cushion on the bottom of the heel due to old age. A significant increase in training intensity or duration may cause inflammation of the plantar fascia. High-heeled shoes, improperly fitted shoes, and shoes that are too flexible in the middle of the arch or bend before the toe joints will cause problems with the plantar fascia and possibly lead to heel spurs.<br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>A thorough history and physical exam is always necessary for the proper diagnosis of heel spurs and other foot conditions. X rays of the heel area are helpful, as excess bone production will be visible.<br /><br><br><b>Non Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Heel spurs and plantar fascitis are usually controlled with conservative treatment. Early intervention includes stretching the calf muscles while avoiding re-injuring the plantar fascia. Decreasing or changing activities, losing excess weight, and improving the proper fitting of shoes are all important measures to decrease this common source of foot pain. Modification of footwear includes shoes with a raised heel and better arch support. Shoe orthotics recommended by a healthcare professional are often very helpful in conjunction with exercises to increase strength of the foot muscles and arch. The orthotic prevents excess pronation and lengthening of the plantar fascia and continued tearing of this structure. To aid in this reduction of inflammation, applying ice for 10-15 minutes after activities and use of anti-inflammatory medication can be helpful. Physical therapy can be beneficial with the use of heat modalities, such as ultrasound that creates a deep heat and reduces inflammation. If the pain caused by inflammation is constant, keeping the foot raised above the heart and/or compressed by wrapping with an ace bandage will help. Corticosteroid injections are also frequently used to reduce pain and inflammation. Taping can help speed the healing process by protecting the fascia from reinjury, especially during stretching and walking.<br /><br><br><b>Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Have surgery if no other treatments work. Before performing surgery, doctors usually give home treatments and improved footwear about a year to work. When nothing else eases the pain, here's what you need to know about surgical options. Instep plantar fasciotomy. Doctors remove part of the plantar fascia to ease pressure on the nerves in your foot. Endoscopy. This surgery performs the same function as an instep plantar fasciotomy but uses smaller incisions so that you'll heal faster. However, endoscopy has a higher rate of nerve damage, so consider this before you opt for this option. Be prepared to wear a below-the-knee walking cast to ease the pain of surgery and to speed the healing process. These casts, or "boots," usually work better than crutches to speed up your recovery time. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/What-Are-The-Leading-Causes-Of-Heel-Spur-b1-p29.htm What Are The Signals Of Inferior Calcaneal Spur The first blog 2015-09-26T02:03:22Z <img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://footactive.co.uk/images/heel%20spurs.jpg' width='254' alt='Calcaneal Spur'/><br /><br><br><b>Overview</b><br /><br><br>The calcaneus is the largest bone in the foot. Pain in the heel region can sometimes be related to Plantar Fasciitis, inflammation of the plantar fascia ligament in the heel area. A heel spur is a hook of bone that forms on the calcaneus where the plantar fascia attaches. Heel spurs can be identified with an X-ray. A heel spur can occur with or without Plantar Fasciitis.<br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>At the onset of this condition, pain and swelling become present, with discomfort particularly noted as pushing off with the toes occurs during walking. This movement of the foot stretches the fascia that is already irritated and inflamed. If this condition is allowed to continue, pain is noticed around the heel region because of the newly formed bone, in response to the stress. This results in the development of the heel spur. It is common among athletes and others who run and jump a significant amount.<br /><br><br><img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://www.basiccure.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/getting-rid-of-heel-spur.jpg' width='255' alt='Calcaneal Spur'/><br /><br><br><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>Heel spurs often do not show any symptoms. If you have intermittent or chronic pain when you walk, run or jog, it may be heel spur. There will be inflammation the point where spur formation happens. The pain is caused by soft tissue injury in the heel. Patients often describe the pain as a pin or knife sticking to the heel. The pain is more specially in the morning when the patient stands up for the first time.<br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>The proper diagnosis of a heel spur often requires an X-ray. To make this process as convenient for his patients as possible, most clinics have an on-site digital X-ray and diagnostic ultrasound machines. This can make it unnecessary for patients to visit diagnostic imaging centers, allowing patients to receive more expedient treatment.<br /><br><br><b>Non Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>The key for the proper treatment of heel spurs is determining what is causing the excessive stretching of the plantar fascia. When the cause is over-pronation (flat feet), an orthotic with rearfoot posting and longitudinal arch support is an effective device to reduce the over-pronation, and allow the condition to heal. Other common treatments include stretching exercises, losing weight, wearing shoes that have a cushioned heel that absorbs shock, and elevating the heel with the use of a heel cradle, heel cup, or orthotic. Heel cradles and heel cups provide extra comfort and cushion to the heel, and reduce the amount of shock and shear forces experienced from everyday activities.<br /><br><br><b>Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Surgery, which is a more radical treatment, can be a permanent correction to remove the spur itself. If your doctor believes that surgery is indicated, he will recommend an operation - but only after establishing that less drastic methods of treatment are not successful.<br /><br><br><b>Prevention</b><br /><br><br>You can help prevent heel spur symptoms from returning by wearing the proper shoes. Customized orthotics and insoles can help relieve pressure. It is important to perform your exercises to help keep your foot stretched and relaxed. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/What-Are-The-Signals-Of-Inferior-Calcaneal-Spur-b1-p28.htm Outward Indications Of Bursitis Of The Feet The first blog 2015-08-29T04:54:18Z <b>Overview</b><br /><br><br>A bursa is a fluid-containing sac that is present at many areas of pressure on the body. Its job is to protect these areas of pressure by being a shock absorber. A bursitis is an abnormal inflammation of the bursa sac caused by abnormal excessive pressure, stress and/ or strain over the area it is protecting. On the heel bone, there are two bursa sacs: one on the bottom and the other on the back. Specifically on the bottom of the heel, it is known as an Inferior (bottom) Calcaneal (heel) Bursa. On the back of the heel, it is called the Retro (back) Calcaneal Bursa. When either of these bursas become abnormally stressed, strained, or swollen, the result is bursitis of the heel. It is this bursitis that is the reason for pain in the heel upon arising (Poststatic Dyskinesia) in the morning or after resting for a while. You can either develop these bursitises with or without the presence of heel spur (explanation to follow). As stated before, Morton?s Toe can cause this by causing over pronation in the foot.<br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>Bursitis can develop for several reasons, including repetitively engaging in the same motion, or example, lifting objects above your head for work. Putting a lot of pressure on a bursa for an extended period of time. Leaning on your elbows or kneeling (for example, to lay carpet) can cause bursitis in the elbows or knees. If you sit for long periods of time, especially on hard surfaces, you may develop bursitis in your hip. Wearing shoes with a stiff back that rubs against the back of the ankle can cause Achilles tendon bursitis. Trauma. The bursae at the knee and elbow are close to the surface of the skin, and if you fall directly on your elbow or the knee, you can rupture, injure or puncture a bursa. Infection. Known as septic bursitis, it?s the result of bacteria infecting a bursa. It can occur from an infection traveling from another site or following an accident that ruptures the bursa. Even scraping the skin on your elbow or getting a mosquito bite that breaks the skin near the olecranon bursa (near the elbow) can lead to bursitis. Other joint disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout, or health conditions.<br /><br><br><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>Common signs and symptoms associated with infracalcaneal bursitis include redness under the heel. Pain and swelling under the heel. Pain or ache in the middle part of the underside of the heel. Heel pain or discomfort that increases with prolonged weight-bearing activities.<br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>To begin with, your doctor will gather a medical history about you and your current condition and symptoms. He/she will inquire about the level of your heel pain, the how long you have had the symptoms and the limitations you are experiencing. Details about what and when the pain started, all are very helpful in providing you with a diagnoses of your ankle / heel.<br /><br><br><b>Non Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Your GP may prescribe a short course of anti-inflammatory painkillers to reduce and control the painful inflammation that occurs and antibiotics in cases of septic bursitis. Applying a covered ice pack to the area after the initial injury may also significantly hasten the healing process by reducing the pain and swelling. Make sure the ice pack is covered to prevent any ice burn and for best results use the icepack regularly for 10-15 minutes with intervals of 30 minutes. Where possible it is advisable to avoid all aggravating movements and postures, however complete rest is not as this can lead to weakness and further shortening of the muscle. Massage and manipulative therapies can help loosen the surrounding muscles and tendons of the affected joint, reducing the pressure over the bursa and allowing it to heal faster. If the bursitis is chronic and not responding to treatment then your GP may refer you for a corticosteroid injection which will reduce the inflammation levels which will in turn reduce the pain levels experienced. Corticosteroid injections can have varied results. Surgery is a rare option when it comes to bursitis but occasionally it may be necessary for extremely chronic cases or to drain an infected bursa.<br /><br><br><b>Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Only if non-surgical attempts at treatment fail, will it make sense to consider surgery. Surgery for retrocalcanel bursitis can include many different procedures. Some of these include removal of the bursa, removing any excess bone at the back of the heel (calcaneal exostectomy), and occasionally detachment and re-attachment of the Achilles tendon. If the foot structure and shape of the heel bone is a primary cause of the bursitis, surgery to re-align the heel bone (calcaneal osteotomy) may be considered. Regardless of which exact surgery is planned, the goal is always to decrease pain and correct the deformity. The idea is to get you back to the activities that you really enjoy. Your foot and ankle surgeon will determine the exact surgical procedure that is most likely to correct the problem in your case. But if you have to have surgery, you can work together to develop a plan that will help assure success.<br /><br><br><b>Prevention</b><br /><br><br>Because many soft tissue conditions are caused by overuse, the best treatment is prevention. It is important to avoid or modify the activities that cause problems. Underlying conditions such as leg length differences, improper position or poor technique in sports or work must be corrected. Be aware of potential overuse or injury in your daily activities and change your lifestyle to prevent problems. Otherwise, problems may persist or occur repeatedly. Following are some ways you can avoid future problems. Wear walking or jogging shoes that provide good support. High-top shoes provide support for people with ankle problems. Wear comfortable shoes that fit properly. Wear heel cups or other shoe inserts as recommended by your doctor. Exercise on level, graded surfaces. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/Outward-Indications-Of-Bursitis-Of-The-Feet-b1-p27.htm Do Hammer Toe Splints Work The first blog 2015-08-18T21:07:35Z <img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-gyM79AToTAI/UN68PBK1iqI/AAAAAAAAAFU/G9__4dwlTsQ/s1600/IMG_0401.jpg' width='253' alt='Hammer Toe'/><b>Overview</b><br /><br><br>A <a href="http://juleeeaoo.soup.io/post/393466293/Strategies-for-using-Increase-Height-Inserts"><strong>hammertoe</strong></a> is a misshapen second, third, or fourth toe. The toe bends up at the middle joint. The toe becomes a hammertoe because a muscle in the toe isn?t working properly or is too weak, increasing pressure on the tendons and the toe joints. Muscles normally work in twos to bend and straighten toes. If the toe stays bent too long, a hammertoe develops. Ill-fitting shoes, arthritis, heredity, even an injury, can cause the hammertoe to form. To add insult to injury, corns and calluses are common on top of hammertoes because the toe is rubbing against the shoe.<br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>It is possible to be born with a hammer toe, however many people develop the deformity later in life. Common causes include tightened tendons that cause the toe to curl downward. Nerve injuries or problems with the spinal cord. Stubbing, jamming or breaking a toe. Having a stroke. Being a diabetic. Having a second toe that is longer than the big toe. Wearing high heels or tight shoes that crowd the toes and don?t allow them to lie flat. Aging.<br /><br><br><img class='alignleft' style='float:right;margin-right:10px;' src='http://mybeginnerpointe.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/VA07.png' width='250' alt='Hammer Toe'/><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>Symptoms of a hammertoe are usually <a href="http://juliatall.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/Increase-Your-Height-Easily-With-Shoe-Lifts-b1-p8.htm"><strong>Hammer toes</strong></a> first noticed as a corn on the top of the toe or at the tip which produces pain with walking or wearing tight shoes. Most people feel a corn is due to a skin problem on their toes, which in fact, it is protecting the underlying bone deformity. A corn on the toe is sometimes referred to as a heloma dura or heloma durum, meaning hard corn. This is most common at the level of the affected joint due to continuous friction of the deformity against your shoes.<br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>The treatment options vary with the type and severity of each hammer toe, although identifying the deformity early in its development is important to avoid surgery. Your podiatric physician will examine and X-ray the affected area and recommend a treatment plan specific to your condition.<br /><br><br><b>Non Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Apply a commercial, non-medicated hammer toe pad around the bony prominence of the hammer toe to decrease pressure on the area. Wear a shoe with a deep toe box. If the hammer toe becomes inflamed and painful, apply ice packs several times a day to reduce swelling. Avoid heels more than two inches tall. A loose-fitting pair of shoes can also help protect the foot while reducing pressure on the affected toe, making walking a little easier until a visit to your podiatrist can be arranged. While this treatment will make the hammer toe feel better, it is important to remember that it does not cure the condition. A trip to the podiatrist's office will be necessary to repair the toe to allow for normal foot function. Avoid wearing shoes that are too tight or narrow. Children should have their shoes properly fitted on a regular basis, as their feet can often outgrow their shoes rapidly.<br /><br><br><b>Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Surgical correction is needed to bring the toe into a corrected position and increase its function. Correction of the hammer toes is a simple outpatient surgery, with limited downtime. The best option is to fuse the deformed and contracted toe into a straight position. This limits the need for future surgery and deformity return. A new pin that absorbs in the bone or small screw is used by the Foot and Ankle Institute to avoid the need for a metal pin protruding from the toe during recovery. Although the absorbable pin is not for everyone, it is much more comfortable than the pin protruding from the end of the toe. In certain cases, a removal of a small area of bone in the deformity area will decrease pain and limit the need for a surgical waiting period that is found with fusions. Although the toe is not as stable as with a fusion, in certain cases, an arthroplasty is the best option. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/Do-Hammer-Toe-Splints-Work-b1-p26.htm How To Fix Hammer Toes With Surgery The first blog 2015-06-21T16:29:09Z <img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://bunionsurgeryny.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Toe-Lengthening-Surgery1.jpg' width='253' alt='Hammertoe'/><b>Overview</b><br /><br><br><a href="http://shoeliftsformen.soup.io/post/331728241/Shoe-Lifts-Really-Are-A-Lot-Better"><strong>Hammer toes</strong></a> most commonly affects the second toe on the foot. It causes the middle joint to bend. Hammertoe is most frequently caused by structural problems in the toe or from wearing poor fitting shoes. It is important to diagnose and treat hammertoe early because the condition tends to become worse over time. If left untreated, hammertoe can require surgery.<br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>As described above, the main reason people develop hammertoes is improper footwear, or footwear that is too short for the toes. Shoes that do not allow our toes to lie flat are the biggest cause of hammertoes, though there are others, including genetics, injury or trauma in which the toe is jammed or broken. Diseases that affect the nerves and muscles, such as arthritis. Abnormal foot mechanics due to nerve or muscle damage, causing an imbalance of the flexor and extensor tendons of the toe. Systematic diseases such as arthritis can also lead to problems such as hammertoe. Some people are born with hammertoes, while others are more prone to developing the condition due to genetics. If you have ever broken a toe, you know there is not much that can be done for it. It is one of the only bones in the body that heals without the use of a cast. A broken toe may be splinted, however, which may help prevent a hammertoe from forming.<br /><br><br><img class='alignright' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://static1.squarespace.com/static/54477b58e4b03eb4b6e27ac7/t/5485aaa0e4b024101fa96294/1418046113208/foot-care.jpg%3Fformat%3D1500w' width='253' alt='Hammertoe'/><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>Symptoms of a hammertoe are usually first noticed as a corn on the top of the toe or at the tip which produces pain with walking or wearing tight shoes. Most people feel a corn is due to a skin problem on their toes, which in fact, it is protecting the underlying bone deformity. A corn on the toe is sometimes referred to as a heloma dura or heloma durum, meaning hard corn. This is most common at the level of the affected joint due to continuous friction of the deformity against your shoes.<br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>Most health care professionals can diagnose hammertoe simply by examining your toes and feet. X-rays of the feet are not needed to diagnose hammertoe, but they may be useful to look for signs of some types of arthritis (such as rheumatoid arthritis) or other disorders that can cause hammertoe. If the deformed toe is very painful, your doctor may recommend that you have a fluid sample withdrawn from the joint with a needle so the fluid can be checked for signs of infection or gout (arthritis from crystal deposits).<br /><br><br><b>Non Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Your doctor may prescribe some toe exercises that you can do at home to stretch and strengthen the muscles. For example, you can gently stretch the toes manually. You can use your toes to pick things up off the floor. While you watch television or read, you can put a towel flat under your feet and use your toes to crumple it. Finally, your doctor may recommend that you use commercially available straps, cushions or nonmedicated corn pads to relieve symptoms. If you have diabetes, poor circulation or a lack of feeling in your feet, talk to your doctor before attempting any self-treatment.<br /><br><br><b>Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Any surgery must be carefully considered and approached in a serious manner, as any procedure is serious for the patient. But in most cases the procedure is relatively straight forward. The surgery can be done using local anesthetic and does not require hospitalization. The patient goes home in a special post-operative shoe or a regular sandal, and in most cases can walk immediately. That's not to say that the patient is walking or functioning normally <a href="http://increaseheight.soup.io/post/333457282/Will-Addressing-A-Leg-Length-Disproportion-Using"><strong>Hammer toes</strong></a> immediately after the procedure. The patient must take some time off work to rest the foot and allow it to heal.<br /><br><br><img class='alignright' style='float:right;margin-right:10px;' src='http://www.podantics.com.au/uploads/1/0/9/7/1097210/2581970.jpg' width='252' alt='Hammer Toe'/><b>Prevention</b><br /><br><br>As you get older, feet get bigger. Get your feet measured every time you buy shoes. Don't go by shoe sizes. Shoe sizes vary among manufacturers; a shoe is the right size only when it fits comfortably. The ball of your foot should fit into the widest part of the shoe. A shoe should be sturdy such that it only bends in the ball of the foot, exactly where your big toes bend. Any shoe that can be bent anywhere along the sole or twisted side to side is generally too flimsy. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/How-To-Fix-Hammer-Toes-With-Surgery-b1-p25.htm How To Get Rid Of Bunions At Home The first blog 2015-06-14T21:26:25Z <strong>Overview</strong><br /><br /><img class="alignright" src="http://diseasespictures.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Bunion-3.jpg" border="0" alt="Bunions Callous" width="254" /><br />A bunion is a deformity of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint at the base of the big toe. A bunion develops when the first metatarsal bone of the foot turns outward and the big toe points inward (toward the other toes), causing the joint to jut out. A bunion is most likely to develop when susceptible feet are repeatedly squeezed into narrow, pointed-toe footwear. The big toe pushes against the other toes, sometimes diving over or under them. As a result, the base of the big toe ? the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint ? juts or angles out from the foot.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><strong>Causes</strong><br /><br />The main cause of bunions is excessive pressure being placed on the front of the foot, and is usually the result of wearing high-heeled shoes with pointed toes. A study by the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society found that 88 percent of women in the United States wear shoes that are too small and that 55 percent of them have bunions. Overall, bunions are nine times more common in women than men. In some cases, bunions are hereditary; they also may be caused by arthritis or polio. <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><strong>Symptoms</strong><br /><br />The dominant symptom of a bunion is a big bulging bump on the inside of the base of the big toe. Other symptoms include swelling, soreness and redness around the big toe joint, a tough callus at the bottom of the big toe and persistent or intermittent pain.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><strong>Diagnosis</strong><br /><br />Before examining your foot, the doctor will ask you about the types of shoes you wear and how often you wear them. He or she also will ask if anyone else in your family has had bunions or if you have had any previous injury to the foot. In most cases, your doctor can diagnose a bunion just by examining your foot. During this exam, you will be asked to move your big toe up and down to see if you can move it as much as you should be able to. The doctor also will look for signs of redness and swelling and ask if the area is painful. Your doctor may want to order X-rays of the foot to check for other causes of pain, to determine whether there is significant arthritis and to see if the bones are aligned properly.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><strong>Non Surgical Treatment</strong><br /><br />The treatment method your doctor chooses for you will be based on the severity of the bunion. Treatment can be simple and non-surgical or it can be complex, surgical, and costly. A bunion is permanent unless surgery is performed to remove it, but self-care can help to improve your symptoms. If you suspect that a bunion is developing, you should seek medical attention immediately. Here are the most common conservative treatment options. Changing your shoes. Adding custom orthotics to your shoes. Medication such as Tylenol for pain relief. Padding and taping to put your foot in its normal position. Applying ice or cold compresses to reduce swelling and pain. Keeping pressure off your affected toe, especially if there is swelling, redness, and pain. Before bed, separate the affected toe from the others with a foam-rubber pad and leave it there while you sleep.<br /><img class="alignright" src="http://www.westvanfootclinic.com/images/esxfpufrkn_0390d60b_2c18_43f4_9fc0_95dcf5610ca5.jpg" border="0" alt="Bunions Hard Skin" width="251" /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><strong>Surgical Treatment</strong><br /><br />For very severe bunion deformities where there is considerable angulation between the first and second metatarsals an osteotomy of the metatarsal may not be sufficient and for these patients, the joint between the first metatarsal and the cuneiform bone is fused with screws, called the Lapidus procedure. This realigns the metatarsal completely and stabilizes the bone, preventing mobility and recurrent deformity.<br /> http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/How-To-Get-Rid-Of-Bunions-At-Home-b1-p24.htm The Truth Concerning Over-Pronation Of The Foot The first blog 2015-06-02T15:31:08Z <b>Overview</b><br /><br><br>As with the "normal pronation" sequence, the outside of the heel makes the initial ground contact. However, the foot rolls inward more than the ideal fifteen percent, which is called "overpronation." This means the foot and ankle have problems stabilizing the body, and shock isn't absorbed as efficiently. At the end of the gait cycle, the front of the foot pushes off the ground using mainly the big toe and second toe, which then must do all the work.<img class='alignright' style='float:right;margin-right:10px;' src='http://www.riversidechiropractic.co.uk/images/foot%20pronation/foot-pronation-2.jpg' width='255' alt='Over-Pronation'/><br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>Generally fallen arches are a condition inherited from one or both parents. In addition, age, obesity, and pregnancy cause our arches to collapse. Being in a job that requires long hours of standing and/or walking (e.g. teaching, retail, hospitality, building etc) contributes to this condition, especially when standing on hard surfaces like concrete floors. Last, but not least unsupportive footwear makes our feet roll in more than they should.<br /><br><br><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>When standing, your heels lean inward. When standing, one or both of your knee caps turn inward. Conditions such as a flat feet or bunions may occur. You develop knee pain when you are active or involved in athletics. The knee pain slowly goes away when you rest. You abnormally wear out the soles and heels of your shoes very quickly.<br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>You can test for pronation by looking at the leg and foot from the back. Normally you can see the Achilles Tendon run straight down the leg into the heel. If the foot is pronated, the tendon will run straight down the leg, but when it lies on the heel it will twist outward. This makes the inner ankle bone much more prominent than the outer ankle bone.<img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/592/flashcards/33592/png/eversion1352412061542.png' width='254' alt='Over-Pronation'/><br /><br><br><b>Non Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>If a young child is diagnosed with overpronation braces and custom orthotics can be, conjunction with strengthening and stretching exercises, to realign the bones of the foot. These treatments may have to continue until the child has stopped growing, and orthotics may need to be worn for life in order to prevent the foot reverting to an overpronated state. Wearing shoes that properly support the foot, particularly the arch, is one of the most effective treatments for overpronation. Custom-made orthotic inserts can also be very beneficial. They too support the arch and distribute body weight correctly throughout the foot. Motion-control shoes that prohibit pronation can be worn, so may be useful for those with severe overpronation. One good treatment is to walk barefoot as often as possible. Not relying on shoes to support the arch will encourage proper muscle use. Practicing yoga can help to correct poor posture and teach you how to stand with your weight balanced evenly across the whole foot.<br /><br><br><b>Prevention</b><br /><br><br>Custom-made orthotics will reduce the twisting of the leg muscles as they enter the foot, by maintaining a normal alignment of the bones and joints of the foot. If the bones and joints are aligned properly, by reducing the pronation, the muscles can run straight to their attachments in the foot, without twisting to get to these bones. This action of custom-made orthotics will reduce Achilles Tendonitis shin splints; ankle, knee, hip, and lower back pain; and leg cramps. This action will also allow the leg muscles to work more efficiently, thus allowing you to walk and run with less effort. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/The-Truth-Concerning-Over-Pronation-Of-The-Foot-b1-p23.htm What Is Calcaneal Apophysitis? The first blog 2015-05-22T19:03:44Z <b>Overview</b> <br /><br><br>Sever's Disease, otherwise known as calcaneal apophysitis is an inflammation of the growth plate in the heel of growing children, typically adolescents. The condition presents as pain in the heel and is caused by repetitive stress to the heel and is thus particularly common in active children. It usually resolves once the bone has completed growth or activity is lessened.<br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>Sever disease, like other similar conditions (eg, Osgood-Schlatter disease, little-leaguer's elbow, and iliac apophysitis), is believed to be caused by decreased resistance to shear stress at the bone-growth plate interface. Studies have indicated that traction apophyses have a higher composition of fibrocartilage than epiphyses subjected more to axial load, which are composed predominantly of hyaline cartilage. The anatomy of the calcaneal apophysis lends to significant shear stress because of its vertical orientation and the direction of pull from the strong gastrocnemius-soleus muscle group.<br /><br><br><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>Children aged between 8 to 13 years of age can experience Sever?s disease with girls being normally younger and boys slightly older. Sever?s disease normally involves the back of the heel bone becoming painful towards the end of intense or prolonged activity and can remain painful after the activity for a few hours. Severe cases can result in limping and pain that can even remain the next morning after sport.<br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>Sever?s disease can be diagnosed based on the symptoms your child has. Your child?s doctor will conduct a physical examination by squeezing different parts of your child?s foot to see if they cause any pain. An X-ray may be used to rule out other problems, such as a broken bone or fracture.<br /><br><br><b>Non Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Ice the heel(s) well after exercise (until the area is cold and numb!) Stretch hamstring and calf muscles 2-3 times daily (exercises below) REST when pain becomes persistent or moderate (even if it means skipping games or practices.) Anti-inflammatory medication such as ibuprofen. If symptoms persist, your child may need to see a physical therapist for additional exercises, and/or an orthopedist for othotics or temporary casting/crutches if pain is severe. Sever?s disease is self-recovering, meaning that it will go away on its own when the heels are rested or when the bone is through growing. The condition is not expected to create any long-term disability, and expected to subside in 2-8 weeks. However, pain can recur, for example at the start of a new sports season, several times if it is not taken care of.<br /><br><br><b>Recovery</b><br /><br><br>This condition is self limiting - it will go away when the two parts of bony growth join together - this is natural. Unfortunately, Sever's disease can be very painful and limit sport activity of the child while waiting for it to go away, so treatment is often advised to help relieve it. In a few cases of Sever's disease, the treatment is not successful and these children will be restricted in their activity levels until the two growth areas join - usually around the age of 16 years. There are no known long term complications associated with Sever's disease. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/What-Is-Calcaneal-Apophysitis-b1-p22.htm Adult Aquired Flat Feet The first blog 2015-03-15T09:52:07Z <b>Overview</b><br /><br><br>Originally known as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction or insufficiency, <a href="http://ultimateheight.weebly.com/1/post/2013/08/make-more-money-being-taller.html"><strong>adult-acquired flatfoot</strong></a> deformity encompasses a wide range of deformities. These deformities vary in location, severity, and rate of progression. Establishing a diagnosis as early as possible is one of the most important factors in treatment. Prompt early, aggressive nonsurgical management is important. A patient in whom such treatment fails should strongly consider surgical correction to avoid worsening of the deformity. In all four stages of deformity, the goal of surgery is to achieve proper alignment and maintain as much flexibility as possible in the foot and ankle complex. However, controversy remains as to how to manage flexible deformities, especially those that are severe.<img class='alignright' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://image.slidesharecdn.com/flatfootexercises-121019110932-phpapp02/95/flat-foot-exercises-1-638.jpg%3Fcb%3D1350663008' width='255' alt='Flat Feet'/><br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired adult flatfoot. Sometimes this can be a result of specific trauma, but usually the tendon becomes injured from wear and tear over time. This is more prevalent in individuals with an inherited flat foot but excessive weight, age, and level of activity are also contributing factors.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>Many patients with this condition have no pain or symptoms. When problems do arise, the good news is that acquired flatfoot treatment is often very effective. Initially, it will be important to rest and avoid activities that worsen the pain.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction is diagnosed with careful clinical observation of the patient?s gait (walking), range of motion testing for the foot and ankle joints, and diagnostic imaging. People with flatfoot deformity walk with the heel angled outward, also called over-pronation. Although it is normal for the arch to impact the ground for shock absorption, people with PTTD have an arch that fully collapses to the ground and does not reform an arch during the entire gait period. After evaluating the ambulation pattern, the foot and ankle range of motion should be tested. Usually the affected foot will have decreased motion to the ankle joint and the hindfoot. Muscle strength may also be weaker as well. An easy test to perform for PTTD is the single heel raise where the patient is asked to raise up on the ball of his or her effected foot. A normal foot type can lift up on the toes without pain and the heel will invert slightly once the person has fully raised the heel up during the test. In early phases of PTTD the patient may be able to lift up the heel but the heel will not invert. An elongated or torn posterior tibial tendon, which is a mid to late finding of PTTD, will prohibit the patient from fully rising up on the heel and will cause intense pain to the arch. Finally diagnostic imaging, although used alone cannot diagnose PTTD, can provide additional information for an accurate diagnosis of flatfoot deformity. Xrays of the foot can show the practitioner important angular relationships of the hindfoot and forefoot which help diagnose flatfoot deformity. Most of the time, an MRI is not needed to diagnose PTTD but is a tool that should be considered in advanced cases of flatfoot deformity. If a partial tear of the posterior tibial tendon is of concern, then an MRI can show the anatomic location of the tear and the extensiveness of the injury.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Non surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Non-surgical treatment includes rest and reducing your activity until the pain improves. Orthotics or bracing help support the tendon to reduce its pull along the arch, thus reducing pain. In moderate to severe cases, a below knee cast or walking boot may be needed to allow the tendon to rest completely and heal. Physical therapy is an integral part of the non-surgical treatment regimen to reduce inflammation and pain. Anti-inflammatory medication is often used as well. Many times evaluation of your current shoes is necessary to ensure you are wearing appropriate shoe gear to prevent re-injury.<br /><br><br><img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://www.anewgenerationstyle.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/best-running-shoes-flat-feet.jpg' width='256' alt='Flat Feet'/><br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Surgical treatment should be considered when all other conservative treatment has failed. Surgery options for flatfoot reconstruction depend on the severity of the flatfoot. Surgery for a flexible flatfoot deformity (flatfoot without arthritis to the foot joints) involves advancing the posterior tibial tendon under the arch to provide more support and decrease elongation of the tendon as well as addressing the hindfoot eversion with a osteotomy to the calcaneus (surgical cut in the heel bone). Additionally, the Achilles tendon may need to be lengthened because of the compensatory contracture of the Achilles tendon with flatfoot deformity. Flatfoot deformity with arthritic changes to the foot is considered a rigid flatfoot. Correction of a rigid flatfoot deformity usually involves surgical fusion of the hindfoot joints. This is a reconstructive procedure which allows the surgeon to re-position the foot into a normal position. Although the procedure should be considered for advanced PTTD, it has many complications and should be discussed at length with your doctor. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/Adult-Aquired-Flat-Feet-b1-p21.htm What Could I Do About Achilles Tendonitis ? The first blog 2015-03-04T05:55:19Z <b>Overview</b><br /><br><br><img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://www.ankleandfootcenters.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Achilles-Tendonitis-Pain-200x300.jpg' width='254' alt='Achilles Tendinitis'/>Achilles Tendonitis or achilles tendinopathy which is probably a more accurate term is an overuse injury causing pain, inflammation and or degeneration of the thick achilles tendon at the back of the ankle. The term achilles tendinopathy is probably a better term to describe the range of conditions that can cause achilles tendon pain. Achilles tendonitis can be either acute or chronic. Acute achilles tendonitis is usually more painful and of recent onset. Chronic achilles tendonitis will have come on gradually and over weeks, not necessarily preventing activity.<br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>The Achilles tendon is a strong band of connective tissue that attaches the calf muscle to the heel bone. When the muscle contracts, the tendon transmits the power of this contraction to the heel, producing movement. The Achilles tendon moves through a protective sheath and is made up of thousands of tiny fibres. It is thought that Achilles tendonitis develops when overuse of the tendon causes the tiny fibres that make up the tendon to tear. This causes inflammation, pain and swelling. As the tendon swells it can begin to rub against the sheath surrounding it, irritating the sheath and causing it too to become inflamed and swollen. It has a poor blood supply, which can make it susceptible to injury and can make recovery from injury slow. Factors that can lead to the development of Achilles tendonitis include, tight or weak calf muscles, rapidly increasing the amount or intensity of exercise. Hill climbing or stair climbing exercises. Changes in footwear, particularly changing from wearing high-heeled shoes to wearing flat shoes. Wearing inadequate or inappropriate shoes for the sporting activity being undertaken. Not adequately warming up and stretching prior to exercise. A sudden sharp movement that causes the calf muscles to contract and the stress on the Achilles tendon to be increased. This can cause the tendon fibres to tear.<br /><br><br><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>People with Achilles tendinitis may experience pain during and after exercising. Running and jumping activities become painful and difficult. Symptoms include stiffness and pain in the back of the ankle when pushing off the ball of the foot. For patients with chronic tendinitis (longer than six weeks), x-rays may reveal calcification (hardening of the tissue) in the tendon. Chronic tendinitis can result in a breakdown of the tendon, or tendinosis, which weakens the tendon and may cause a rupture.<br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>A thorough subjective and objective examination from a physiotherapist is usually sufficient to diagnose an Achilles injury such as Achilles tendonitis. Occasionally, further investigations such as an Ultrasound, X-ray or MRI scan may be required to assist with diagnosis and assess the severity of the condition.<br /><br><br><b>Nonsurgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Achilles tendinitis can typically be treated at home by following the R.I.C.E. treatment method. Rest. Rest the tendon by avoiding activities that irritate the tendon or increase swelling. However, this does not mean you should be completely inactive for long periods of time, as this can cause stiffness in your joints. It?s still important to stretch in order to maintain strength and flexibility and partake in activities that don?t put direct pressure on the tendon, such as bicycling. Ice. Apply ice to the affected area for 20-minutes at a time, every couple hours, as needed, to reduce swelling and pain. Compression. Use compression bandages to help reduce swelling. Elevation. Elevate your ankle above the level of your heart to help reduce swelling. It is particularly important to do this at night while you sleep. Simply place a pillow or two under your ankle to keep it elevated. Once the tendon has healed, be sure to gradually return to more strenuous activities. If flattened arches contributed to the injury, wear shoes with appropriate support or inserts to prevent the condition from progressing or recurring. If these non-surgical treatments have not been able to provide relief of symptoms after several months, surgery may be performed to remove inflamed tissue. However, this is not usually recommended unless all other options have been exhausted. Consult your doctor for more information about surgical treatment options.<br /><br><br><img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://www.orthopaedicsurgerynyc.com/nycorthopaedicsurgeon/images/img_achilles-tendonitis4.jpg' width='254' alt='Achilles Tendonitis'/><br /><br><br><b>Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Around 1 in 4 people who have persisting pain due to Achilles tendinopathy has surgery to treat the condition. Most people have a good result from surgery and their pain is relieved. Surgery involves either of the following, removing nodules or adhesions (parts of the fibres of the tendon that have stuck together) that have developed within the damaged tendon. Making a lengthways cut in the tendon to help to stimulate and encourage tendon healing. Complications from surgery are not common but, if they do occur, can include problems with wound healing.<br /><br><br><b>Prevention</b><br /><br><br>Stay in good shape year-round and try to keep your muscles as strong as they can be. Strong, flexible muscles work more efficiently and put less stress on your tendon. Increase the intensity and length of your exercise sessions gradually. This is especially important if you've been inactive for a while or you're new to a sport. Always warm up before you go for a run or play a sport. If your muscles are tight, your Achilles tendons have to work harder to compensate. Stretch it out. Stretch your legs, especially your calves, hamstrings, quadriceps, and thigh muscles - these muscles help stabilize your knee while running. Get shoes that fit properly and are designed for your sport. If you're a jogger, go to a running specialty store and have a trained professional help you select shoes that match your foot type and offer plenty of support. Replace your shoes before they become worn out. Try to run on softer surfaces like grass, dirt trails, or synthetic tracks. Hard surfaces like concrete or asphalt can put extra pressure on the joints. Also avoid running up or down hills as much as possible. Vary your exercise routine. Work different muscle groups to keep yourself in good overall shape and keep individual muscles from getting overused. If you notice any symptoms of Achilles tendonitis, stop running or doing activities that put stress on your feet. Wait until all the pain is gone or you have been cleared to start participating again by a doctor. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/What-Could-I-Do-About-Achilles-Tendonitis-b1-p20.htm What Brings About Heel Discomfort And Ways To Overcome It The first blog 2015-01-17T10:56:56Z <img class='alignright' style='float:right;margin-left:10px;' src='http://www.aidmyplantar.com/_img/how-your-blood-flow-heals-your-body.jpg' width='253' alt='Feet Pain'/><br /><br><br><b>Overview</b><br /><br><br>Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain in runners, eventually affecting 10 percent of the running community. While running, the plantar fascia works with the Achilles tendon to store and return energy. Because of its powerful attachment to the base of the toe, the plantar fascia stabilizes the inner forefoot as forces peak during pushoff. Unlike bone spurs and stress fractures of the heel, plantar fasciitis tends to produce pain during the pushoff phase while running, not during initial contact. A simple way to tell if you have plantar fasciitis versus a heel spur/stress fracture is to walk on your toes: heel spurs and heel stress fractures feel better while you walk on your toes, while plantar fasciitis typically produces more discomfort when you shift your weight onto your toes.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>Repeated small injuries to the fascia (with or without inflammation) are thought to be the cause of plantar fasciitis. The injury is usually near to where the plantar fascia attaches to your heel bone. You are more likely to injure your plantar fascia in certain situations. For example, if you are on your feet for a lot of the time, or if you do lots of walking, running, standing, etc, when you are not used to it. (Plantar fasciitis may be confused with 'Policeman's heel', but they are different. Policeman's heel is plantar calcaneal bursitis - inflammation of the sack of fluid (bursa) under the heel bone. This is not as common as plantar fasciitis.) Also, people with a sedentary lifestyle are more prone to plantar fasciitis. If you have recently started exercising on a different surface, for example, running on the road instead of a track. If you have been wearing shoes with poor cushioning or poor arch support. If you are overweight this will put extra strain on your heel. If there is overuse or sudden stretching of your sole. For example, athletes who increase running intensity or distance; poor technique starting 'off the blocks', etc. If you have a tight Achilles tendon (the big tendon at the bottom of your calf muscles above your heel). This can affect your ability to flex your ankle and make you more likely to damage your plantar fascia. Often there is no apparent cause for plantar fasciitis, particularly in older people. A common wrong belief is that the pain is due to a bony growth or 'spur' coming from the heel bone (calcaneum). Many people have a bony spur of the heel bone but not everyone with this gets plantar fasciitis.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>Patients with plantar fasciitis typically experience pain underneath the heel and along the inner sole of the foot. In less severe cases, patients may only experience an ache or stiffness in the plantar fascia or heel that increases with rest (typically at night or first thing in the morning) following activities which place stress on the plantar fascia. These activities typically include standing, walking or running excessively (especially up hills, on uneven surfaces or in poor footwear such as thongs), jumping, hopping and general weight bearing activity. The pain associated with this condition may also warm up with activity in the initial stages of injury. As the condition progresses, patients may experience symptoms that increase during sport or activity, affecting performance. In severe cases, patients may walk with a limp or be unable to weight bear on the affected leg. Patients with this condition may also experience swelling, tenderness on firmly touching the plantar fascia (often on a specific spot on the inner aspect of the heel) and sometimes pain on performing a plantar fascia stretch.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>Your doctor may look at your feet and watch the way you stand, walk and exercise. He can also ask you questions about your health history, including illnesses and injuries that you had in your past. The symptoms you have such as the pain location or when does your foot hurts most. Your activity routine such as your job, exercise habits and physical activities preformed. Your doctor may decide to use an X-ray of your foot to detect bones problems. MRI or ultrasound can also be used as further investigation of the foot condition.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Non Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Treatment of heel pain caused by plantar fasciitis begins with simple steps. There are a number of options for treatment of plantar fasciitis, and almost always some focused effort with nonsurgical treatments can provide excellent relief. In rare circumstances, simple steps are not adequate at providing relief, and more invasive treatments may be recommended. Typically, patients progress from simple steps, and gradually more invasive treatments, and only rarely is surgery required.<br /><br><br><img class='alignright' style='float:right;margin-left:10px;' src='http://www.totallyfeet.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Plantar-fascia.jpg' width='255' alt='Pain Of The Heel'/><br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>When more-conservative measures aren't working, your doctor might recommend steroid shots. Injecting a type of steroid medication into the tender area can provide temporary pain relief. Multiple injections aren't recommended because they can weaken your plantar fascia and possibly cause it to rupture, as well as shrink the fat pad covering your heel bone. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy. In this procedure, sound waves are directed at the area of heel pain to stimulate healing. It's usually used for chronic plantar fasciitis that hasn't responded to more-conservative treatments. This procedure may cause bruises, swelling, pain, numbness or tingling and has not been shown to be consistently effective. Surgery. Few people need surgery to detach the plantar fascia from the heel bone. It's generally an option only when the pain is severe and all else fails. Side effects include a weakening of the arch in your foot.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Stretching Exercises</b><br /><br><br>You may begin exercising the muscles of your foot right away by gently stretching them as follows. Prone hip extension, Lie on your stomach with your legs straight out behind you. Tighten up your buttocks muscles and lift one leg off the floor about 8 inches. Keep your knee straight. Hold for 5 seconds. Then lower your leg and relax. Do 3 sets of 10. Towel stretch, Sit on a hard surface with one leg stretched out in front of you. Loop a towel around your toes and the ball of your foot and pull the towel toward your body keeping your knee straight. Hold this position for 15 to 30 seconds then relax. Repeat 3 times. When the towel stretch becomes too easy, you may begin doing the standing calf stretch. Standing calf stretch, Facing a wall, put your hands against the wall at about eye level. Keep one leg back with the heel on the floor, and the other leg forward. Turn your back foot slightly inward (as if you were pigeon-toed) as you slowly lean into the wall until you feel a stretch in the back of your calf. Hold for 15 to 30 seconds. Repeat 3 times. Do this exercise several times each day. Sitting plantar fascia stretch, Sit in a chair and cross one foot over your other knee. Grab the base of your toes and pull them back toward your leg until you feel a comfortable stretch. Hold 15 seconds and repeat 3 times. When you can stand comfortably on your injured foot, you can begin standing to stretch the bottom of your foot using the plantar fascia stretch. Achilles stretch, Stand with the ball of one foot on a stair. Reach for the bottom step with your heel until you feel a stretch in the arch of your foot. Hold this position for 15 to 30 seconds and then relax. Repeat 3 times. After you have stretched the bottom muscles of your foot, you can begin strengthening the top muscles of your foot. Frozen can roll, Roll your bare injured foot back and forth from your heel to your mid-arch over a frozen juice can. Repeat for 3 to 5 minutes. This exercise is particularly helpful if done first thing in the morning. Towel pickup, With your heel on the ground, pick up a towel with your toes. Release. Repeat 10 to 20 times. When this gets easy, add more resistance by placing a book or small weight on the towel. Balance and reach exercises, Stand upright next to a chair. This will provide you with balance if needed. Stand on the foot farthest from the chair. Try to raise the arch of your foot while keeping your toes on the floor. Keep your foot in this position and reach forward in front of you with your hand farthest away from the chair, allowing your knee to bend. Repeat this 10 times while maintaining the arch height. This exercise can be made more difficult by reaching farther in front of you. Do 2 sets. Stand in the same position as above. While maintaining your arch height, reach the hand farthest away from the chair across your body toward the chair. The farther you reach, the more challenging the exercise. Do 2 sets of 10. Heel raise, Balance yourself while standing behind a chair or counter. Using the chair to help you, raise your body up onto your toes and hold for 5 seconds. Then slowly lower yourself down without holding onto the chair. Hold onto the chair or counter if you need to. When this exercise becomes less painful, try lowering on one leg only. Repeat 10 times. Do 3 sets of 10. Side-lying leg lift, Lying on your side, tighten the front thigh muscles on your top leg and lift that leg 8 to 10 inches away from the other leg. Keep the leg straight. Do 3 sets of 10. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/What-Brings-About-Heel-Discomfort-And-Ways-To-Overcome-It-b1-p19.htm What Is Heel Pain And How You Can Heal It The first blog 2015-01-14T00:51:13Z <img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_uqBx13aymCE/TH9L9RY9o0I/AAAAAAAAFCs/uzf2qiWsvrU/s400/achilles-exercise-series.jpg'' width='254' alt='Painful Heel'/><br /><br><br><b>Overview</b><br /><br><br>Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain in adults. The pain is usually caused by collagen degeneration (which is sometimes misnamed “chronic inflammation”) at the origin of the plantar fascia at the medial tubercle of the calcaneus. This degeneration is similar to the chronic necrosis of tendonosis, which features loss of collagen continuity, increases in ground substance (matrix of connective tissue) and vascularity, and the presence of fibro-blasts rather than the inflammatory cells usually seen with the acute inflammation of tendonitis. The cause of the degeneration is repetitive microtears of the plantar fascia that overcome the body's ability to repair itself.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>The plantar fascia can also become aggravated by repetitive activity. If you increase the number of times the heel hits the ground, that can cause plantar fasciitis, a number of people develop problems when their feet are unaccustomed to hard tile or wood floors. Other risk factors for plantar fasciitis include obesity, an extra high or low foot arch, and activities like running.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>The typical presentation is sharp pain localized at the anterior aspect of the calcaneus. Plantar fasciitis has a partial association with a heel spur (exostosis); however, many asymptomatic individuals have bony heel spurs, whereas many patients with plantar fasciitis do not have a spur.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>Your doctor will perform a physical exam to check for tenderness in your foot and the exact location of the pain to make sure that it’s not caused by a different foot problem. The doctor may ask you to flex your foot while he or she pushes on the plantar fascia to see if the pain gets worse as you flex and better as you point your toe. Mild redness or swelling will also be noted. Your doctor will evaluate the strength of your muscles and the health of your nerves by checking your reflexes, your muscle tone, your sense of touch and sight, your coordination, and your balance. X-rays or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan may be ordered to check that nothing else is causing your heel pain, such as a bone fracture.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Non Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>About 90% of plantar fasciitis cases are self-limited and will improve within six months with conservative treatment and within a year regardless of treatment. Many treatments have been proposed for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. First-line conservative approaches include rest, heat, ice, calf-strengthening exercises, techniques to stretch the calf muscles, achilles tendon, and plantar fascia, weight reduction in the overweight or obese, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. NSAIDs are commonly used to treat plantar fasciitis, but fail to resolve the pain in 20% of people. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is an effective treatment modality for plantar fasciitis pain unresponsive to conservative nonsurgical measures for at least three months. Corticosteroid injections are sometimes used for cases of plantar fasciitis refractory to more conservative measures. The injections may be an effective modality for short-term pain relief up to one month, but studies failed to show effective pain relief after three months. Notable risks of corticosteroid injections for plantar fasciitis include plantar fascia rupture, skin infection, nerve or muscle injury, or atrophy of the plantar fat pad. Custom orthotic devices have been demonstrated as an effective method to reduce plantar fasciitis pain for up to 12 weeks. Night splints for 1-3 months are used to relieve plantar fasciitis pain that has persisted for six months. The night splints are designed to position and maintain the ankle in a neutral position thereby passively stretching the calf and plantar fascia overnight during sleep. Other treatment approaches may include supportive footwear, arch taping, and physical therapy.<br /><br><br><img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://www.theballetblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/plantar-fasciitis-symptoms.jpg' width='254' alt='Plantar Fascia'/><br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Surgery may be considered in very difficult cases. Surgery is usually only advised if your pain has not eased after 12 months despite other treatments. The operation involves separating your plantar fascia from where it connects to the bone; this is called a plantar fascia release. It may also involve removal of a spur on the calcaneum if one is present. Surgery is not always successful. It can cause complications in some people so it should be considered as a last resort. Complications may include infection, increased pain, injury to nearby nerves, or rupture of the plantar fascia.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Prevention</b><br /><br><br>It is not always possible to prevent heel pain, but there are measures you can take to help avoid further episodes. Healthy weight. Being overweight can place excess pressure and strain on your feet, particularly on your heels. This increases the risk of damaging your feet and heels. If you are overweight, losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight by combining regular exercise with a healthy, balanced diet can be beneficial for your feet. You can calculate your body mass index (BMI) to find out whether you are a healthy weight for your height and build. To work out your BMI, divide your weight in kilograms by your height in metres squared. A BMI of less than 18.5 means that you are underweight, 18.5-24.9 means that your weight is healthy, 25-29 means that you are overweight, 30-40 means that you are obese, over 40 means that you are morbidly obese. You can also use the BMI healthy weight calculator to work out your BMI. Healthy feet. You should always wear footwear that is appropriate for your environment and day-to-day activities. Wearing high heels when you go out in the evening is unlikely to be harmful. However, wearing them all week at work may damage your feet, particularly if your job involves a lot of walking or standing. Ideally, you should wear shoes with laces and a low to moderate heel that supports and cushions your arches and heels. Avoid wearing shoes with no heels. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/What-Is-Heel-Pain-And-How-You-Can-Heal-It-b1-p18.htm What Exactly Can Cause Pain In The Heel The first blog 2015-01-10T10:05:00Z <img class='alignright' style='float:right;margin-left:10px;' src='http://image.slidesharecdn.com/plantarfascitisfinal-120423112743-phpapp02/95/plantar-fascitis-final-31-728.jpg%3Fcb%3D1335198573' width='253' alt='Heel Pain'/><br /><br><br><b>Overview</b><br /><br><br>Heel pain is most often caused by plantar fasciitis, a condition that is sometimes also called heel spur syndrome when a spur is present. Heel pain may also be due to other causes, such as a stress fracture, tendonitis, arthritis, nerve irritation, or, rarely, a cyst. Because there are several potential causes, it is important to have heel pain properly diagnosed. A foot and ankle surgeon is able to distinguish between all the possibilities and determine the underlying source of your heel pain. Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the band of tissue (the plantar fascia) that extends from the heel to the toes. In this condition, the fascia first becomes irritated and then inflamed, resulting in heel pain.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Causes</b><br /><br><br>The most common cause of plantar fasciitis relates to faulty structure of the foot. For example, people who have problems with their arches, either overly flat feet or high-arched feet, are more prone to developing plantar fasciitis. Wearing non-supportive footwear on hard, flat surfaces puts abnormal strain on the plantar fascia and can also lead to plantar fasciitis. This is particularly evident when one’s job requires long hours on the feet. Obesity may also contribute to plantar fasciitis.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Symptoms</b><br /><br><br>A sharp pain in the center of your heel will most likely be one of the biggest symptoms of plantar fasciitis. A classic sign of plantar fasciitis is when the pain is worst during the first steps you take in the morning.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Diagnosis</b><br /><br><br>Diagnosis of plantar fasciitis is based on a medical history, the nature of symptoms, and the presence of localised tenderness in the heel. X-rays may be recommended to rule out other causes for the symptoms, such as bone fracture and to check for evidence of heel spurs. Blood tests may also be recommended.<br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Non Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>In the early stages of plantar fasciitis resting the foot may ease the pain. Medication to reduce inflammation should help but should only be used short term. Strapping may temporarily reduce the pain. All of the above therapies are only temporary measures and the pain is likely to reoccur if the cause of the abnormal pressure which has triggered the plantar fasciitis has not been identified. In order to establish the cause of the plantar fasciitis a biomechanical assessment may be required.<br /><br><br><img class='alignright' style='float:right;margin-left:10px;' src='http://www.runnersworld.com/sites/default/files/rt/images/plantar_stretch1.jpg' width='253' alt='Pain At The Heel'/><br /><br><br></br><br /><br><br><b>Surgical Treatment</b><br /><br><br>Plantar fasciotomy is often considered after conservative treatment has failed to resolve the issue after six months and is viewed as a last resort. Minimally invasive and endoscopic approaches to plantar fasciotomy exist but require a specialist who is familiar with certain equipment. Heel spur removal during plantar fasciotomy has not been found to improve the surgical outcome. Plantar heel pain may occur for multiple reasons and release of the lateral plantar nerve branch may be performed alongside the plantar fasciotomy in select cases. Possible complications of plantar fasciotomy include nerve injury, instability of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, fracture of the calcaneus, prolonged recovery time, infection, rupture of the plantar fascia, and failure to improve the pain. Coblation (TOPAZ) surgery has recently been proposed as alternative surgical approaches for the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis.<br /><br><br> http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/What-Exactly-Can-Cause-Pain-In-The-Heel-b1-p17.htm Symptoms Of Blisters on the Foot The first blog 2014-12-31T01:52:33Z If your <a href="http://debbiefinger.jimdo.com/2014/03/12/plantar-fasciitis-explained/"><strong>Mallet Toe</strong></a> feels like a bruise or a dull ache, you may have metatarsalgia People with metatarsalgia will often find that the pain is aggravated by walking in bare feet and on hard floor surfaces. Pain in the ball of your foot can stem from several causes. Ball of foot pain is the pain felt in the ball of foot region. Metatarsalgia is a condition characterized by having pain in ball of foot. The average adult takes about 9,000 steps per day.<br /><br><br>U-Shaped portion surrounds sore callus and reduces pain by transferring pressure from callus to the cushion. Soft orthotics cushion the ball and arches of the feet and protect them from injury and pain, while rigid orthotics correct abnormal foot angles and movements that can cause or worsen pain in the ball of the foot. Many insoles fit inside of slippers so that people suffering from pain in the ball of the foot can walk more comfortably inside their homes as well as outside. In addition, some insoles include added deodorizers to help decrease foot odor. While gel or foam insoles are sold at pharmacies, grocery stores and sporting-goods stores, orthotics require a visit to a podiatrist, who will make a cast of the foot and build a custom-fit insole from the cast. Foam, gel and soft orthotics require replacement once a year or more as the cushioning wears out. Rigid orthotics rarely need replacement. Hip bone spur can cause a lot of discomfort.<br /><br><br>If you see just a thin line connecting the ball of your foot to your heel, you have high arches. If you have flat feet or high arches, you're more likely to get plantar fasciitis, an inflammation of the tissue along the bottom of your foot. Without proper arch support, you can have pain in your heels, arch, and leg. You can also develop bunions and hammertoes, which can become painful,” says Marlene Reid, a podiatrist, or foot and ankle doctor, in Naperville, IL. Shoes with good arch support and a slightly raised heel can help ward off trouble. Laces, buckles, or straps are best for high arches. See a foot doctor to get fitted with custom inserts for your shoes. Good running shoes, for example, can prevent heel pain, stress fractures , and other foot problems that can be brought on by running. A 2-inch heel is less damaging than a 4-inch heel. If you have flat feet, opt for chunky heels instead of skinny ones, Reid says.<img class='alignleft' style='float:left;margin-right:10px;' src='http://www.soleintegrity.com.au/images/common/Foot%20Conditions/balloffootpain.png' width='251' alt='Plantar Fasciitis,Pes Planus,Mallet Toe,High Arched Feet,Heel Spur,Heel Pain,Hammer Toe,Hallux Valgus,Foot Pain,Foot Hard Skin,Foot Conditions,Foot Callous,Flat Feet,Fallen Arches,Diabetic Foot,Contracted Toe,Claw Toe,Bunions Hard Skin,Bunions Callous,Bunion Pain,Ball Of Foot Pain,Back Pain'/><br /><br><br>Rheumatoid arthritis causes forefoot deformity and often may cause displacement and even dislocation of the metatarsal joints themselves. Morton's Neuroma can also be a source of metarsalgia and is characterized by pain in the forefoot. Sesamoiditis is located on the plantar surface of the foot and will be located near the first metatarsal phalangeal joint.<img class='alignright' style='float:right;margin-left:10px;' src='http://www.myfootshop.com/content/images/thumbs/0001875_metatarsal-pad-felt_300.jpeg' width='251' alt='Plantar Fasciitis,Pes Planus,Mallet Toe,High Arched Feet,Heel Spur,Heel Pain,Hammer Toe,Hallux Valgus,Foot Pain,Foot Hard Skin,Foot Conditions,Foot Callous,Flat Feet,Fallen Arches,Diabetic Foot,Contracted Toe,Claw Toe,Bunions Hard Skin,Bunions Callous,Bunion Pain,Ball Of Foot Pain,Back Pain'/><br /><br><br>The ezWalker® Custom Performance Insole can help relieve the pain and pressure of hammer toe by strategically supporting the medial, lateral, and trans-metatarsal arches to relieve pressure on the ball of the foot and therefore, release the action causing the hammer toe in the first place. Each ezWalker Performance Insole is custom molded to the specifications of each one of your feet, providing you with the support and comfort you need to relieve pain and produce comfort. Whether your hammer toe condition is due to genetics or not, ezWalker® Custom Performance Insoles can help you find relief from hammer toe and foot pain. The back of your ankle may feel tight and sore. http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/Symptoms-Of-Blisters-on-the-Foot-b1-p16.htm Chronic Ankle Pain May Be More Than Just A Sprain -- ScienceDaily The first blog 2014-03-21T21:16:20Z <br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="http://wefixu.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/achilles.jpg?w=120&h=215" width="" /><br><br>Chronic Ankle Pain May Be More Than Just A Sprain -- ScienceDaily<br><br>A review article published in the May 2009 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS) explains that tendon injuries to the ankle can be a possible cause for this chronic pain. In some cases, the condition is untreated or overlooked which prolongs the pain and the problem.<br> <br>"When patients injure their ankles, the injury may not seem serious at first," explains Terrence Philbin, DO, lead author of the article and Fellowship Director of the Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Center in Columbus, Ohio. "People may not seek medical attention and they can think it will just get better on its own. I think that is why this condition often goes undiagnosed."<br> <br>The authors of the article describe how in some cases chronic ankle pain may actually be the result of injuries to the peroneal tendons.<br> <br>The peroneal tendons are located behind the outside portion of the anklebone (called the fibula). The tendons help to stabilize the foot and ankle.<br> <br>Tendon injuries can include tendonitis or swelling around the tendons. In more severe cases, the peroneal tendons can actually tear or there can be a swelling of the tendons behind the fibula bone. This can cause the ligament that holds the tendons together to stretch out and tear, or even rupture.<br> <br>Symptoms associated with peroneal tendon injuries can include:<br> Ankle pain that is not responding to treatment Swelling and tenderness around the outside of the ankle Pain behind the anklebone Pain that transmits from the ankle down into the foot <br>The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound can be helpful when identifying and diagnosing peroneal tendon injuries and disorders. "These imaging techniques offer a more complete look at the peroneal tendons," noted Philbin. "One might consider getting an MRI or ultrasound especially if you have chronic ankle pain."<br> <br>If the condition is caught early, non-operative treatment options can include:<br> Rest, ice and elevation Anti-inflammatory medication Immobilization in a cast or brace Physical therapy <br>More serious injuries of the peroneal tendons, including tears or ruptures, will very likely require surgery.<br> <br>Peroneal tendon injuries can happen suddenly or can develop over time. The injury is most common among athletes involved in sports that require repetitive ankle motion and in individuals who have high arches of the foot.<br> <br>A proper diagnosis is essential in order to treat peroneal tendon injuries correctly and to help alleviate chronic pain. Philbin reminds patients, "If you have ankle pain and it is not getting better, do not ignore it. Get it evaluated by a physician who has experience treating foot and ankle injuries."<br> <br>Terrence Philbin, DO, and the co-authors of this article received no compensation for this review article.<br> <br><br><br><br><img style="float:left;margin:10px;border:none;" src="http://www.doctorre.com/commoninjuries/images/achten.jpg" width="" /><br> http://shirleytaller.sosblogs.com/The-first-blog-b1/Chronic-Ankle-Pain-May-Be-More-Than-Just-A-Sprain-ScienceDaily-b1-p15.htm